Ayaz Kala & Toprak Fortresses
Built in the third century, the ancient settlement of Toprak is known for its unusual architecture typifying the town-planning and fortification art of ancient Khorezm settlement. Right at the governor's palace stands three majestic towers standing 25 meters up, proving that the architectural advancement of the Khorezm settlement was truly exceptional during its time.
Located on a hilltop of the Kyzylkum Desert, the fortress ruin of Ayaz Kala is a legacy of the Kushan Empire, dating back to the second century. The fortress was originally constructed as part of border fortresses guarding the borders of the Kushan Empire. Unlike other ancient Khorezm castles, Ayaz Kala has unfortified rural settlements comprising of archaeological residential buildings.